My publications


[In press]. Evaluating, supporting and enhancing Internet search activity: a review of research, with implications for pedagogy. In David Yaden and Theresa Rogers (Eds) Literacies and Languages Education, International Encyclopedia of Education, 4th edition. Amsterdam: Elsvier.

2021 Becta’s ImpaCT2- twenty years on. Advancing Education. The Naace Journal. Autumn, 2021, 23-27.     ISBN: 978-1-7397517-0-8

2020  How should we judge the quality of students’ internet search activity? A synoptic review of research. INTED2020 Proceedings. Valencia: IATED Academy. ISBN 978-84-09-17939-8.

2018 Using Technology to Improve Reading and Learning. Leicester: UKLA, 96 pp. (with Bernadette Dwyer).

2018 (online version published by Wiley in 2017)  Defining and seeking to identify critical Internet literacy: a discourse analysis of fifth‐graders’ Internet search and evaluation activity. Literacy, 52(3), 153-160. doi: 10.1111/lit.12136.

2018  What Are Your Moral Duties as a Reader and as a Teacher of Reading? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 61(6), 697-700.

2018  Critical Internet Literacy: What Is It, and How Should We Teach It?. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 61(4), 461-464.

2017 (with Peter Afflerbach) What is engagement, how is it different from motivation, and how can I promote it? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 61(2) 217–220 doi: 10.1002/jaal.679

2017  Why Are You Reading This?  Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 60(6), 711–714. doi: 10.1002/jaal.638

2017 Reading Achievement, International Comparisons, and Moral Panic: Do International Reading Test Scores Matter? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 60(4), 475–479. doi: 10.1002/jaal.607

2016 Are Computers, Smartphones, and the Internet a Boon or a Barrier for the Weaker Reader? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 60(2), 221-225.

2015 We’re closing the digital divide: now let’s work on closing the teleological divide. In Spiro, R.J., Deschryver, M., Hagerman, M.S., Morsink, P.M., & Thompson, P. (Eds) Reading at a Crossroads? Disjunctures and Continuities in Current Conceptions and Practices. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

2014  Children as inventors: orchestrating an informal pedagogic scenario with digital resources. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning6(1), 21-33 (with Charles Crook).

2014  Using Technology to Improve Reading and Learning. (with Dwyer, B. and Castek, J.) Huntington Beach CA: Shell Education (230 pp).

2014  Harrison, C., Tomás, C., & Crook, C. (2014). An e-maturity analysis explains intention–behavior disjunctions in technology adoption in UK schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 345-351.

2011 Literacy, technology and the Internet: what are the challenges and opportunities for learners with reading difficulties, and how do we support them in meeting those challenges and grasping those opportunities? In Wyatt-Smith, C., Elkins, J., & Gunn, S, Eds. Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy. Springer.

2010 Why do policy-makers find the simple view of reading so attractive, and why do I find it so morally repugnant? Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Learning to Read: Culture, Cognition and Pedagogy. London: Routledge, 207-218.

2010 Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Learning to Read: Culture, Cognition and Pedagogy (ed. with Hall, K., Goswami, U., Ellis, S., and Soler, J.) London: Routledge (258pp.)

2010 The impact of technology: Value-added classroom practice. (with Crook, C., Farrington-Flint, L., Tomás, C., & Underwood, J.) Coventry: Becta.

2009 E-Safety and Web2.0 for children aged 11-16. (with Sharples, M., and Graber, R.) Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning, 25, 70-84.

2009 Digitale Literalität. Lesen, Schreiben, Wissen und Kommunikation durch Computer und Internet unterstützen. In: Bertschi-Kaufman, Rosebrock, ed. Literalität, Bildungsaufgabe und Forschungsfeld. Juventa Verlag, pp. 73-90.

2008 E-safety issues in using Web 2.0 (with Sharples, M., Crook, C., and Graber, R.) Coventry: Becta.

2008 Implementing Web 2.0 in Secondary Schools: Impacts, barriers and issues (with Crook, C., Fisher, T., and Graber, R.) Coventry: Becta

2008 Crook, C. Harrison, C., Fisher, T., and Graber, R. Web 2.0 technologies for learning at Key Stage 3 and 4: summary report (September 2008) Coventry: Becta

2008 Assignment feedback provision in online courses in a tertiary level English Language program in China: a case study.(with Jinlan Tang and Tony Fisher) Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(1), 45-64.

2008 Researching technology and literacy: Thirteen ways of looking at a blackboard. In: Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., Leu, D., eds. Handbook of Research in New Literacies. LEA/ Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 1283-1294.

2008 The Brown Bear and the American Eagle of Reading Research: Steven A. Stahl and Michael Pressley Remembered. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(2), 188-198.

2008 “There’s no rabbits on the Internet”: Scaffolding the development of effective search strategies for struggling readers during Internet inquiry. In: Youb Kim. Victoria Risko, Donald Compton, David Dickinson, Melanie Hundley, Robert Jiménez , Kevin Leander, Deborah Wells Rowe, ed. 57th Annual Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. National Reading Conference, pp. 187-202.

2007 Internet Research Support System: An Application for Immediate Feedback in Authentic Internet Research. (With Omar, N., Higgins, C. & Millan D.C) Journal of Computers, 2(7), 68-74.

2007 Impact study of e-portfolios on learning. with Hartnell-Young, E. (Eds.) Coventry: Becta.(118 pp.)

2007 Developing Reading Comprehension: What Do we Need to do to Make it Happen? Literacy at the Crossroads: Moving Forward, Looking Back. Dublin: Reading Association of Ireland.

2006 Sustaining Myths, Necessary Illusions, and National Literacy Policies: Some U.S. and U.K. Comparisons. Elementary School Journal, 107(1), 121-131.

2006 Response to Morag Stuart’s Open Dialogue article: ‘Teaching reading: Why start with systematic phonics?. Psychology of Education Review, 30(2), 29-31.

2006 Postmodern research and e-learning: anatomy and representation. European Educational Research Journal, 5(2), 80-93.

2006 Evaluating Real-time Online Research Data (RORD) and Verbatim Quotient Detection (VQD): low inference tools to monitor outcomes of unconstrained authentic Internet research. (with Omar, N., Higgins, C., Harrison, C., & Millan, D. C.) In Sixth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT’06) (pp. 502-506). IEEE.

2006 Assessing Reading: From Theories to Classrooms. (Ed, with Sainsbury, M., and Watts, A.) National Foundation for Educational Research, Slough, UK.

2006 ‘P, not-P and possibly Q’ literacy teachers learning from digital representations of the classroom. (with Pead D. and Sheard, M.)In: Mckenna, M.C., Labbo, L.D., Kieffer, R.D., Reinking, D., eds. International handbook of literacy and technology. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 257-272.

2005 Investigating an Approach for Online Reading Assessment. In: The 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. pp. 526-531

2005 ICT and Classroom Pedagogies. In: M. Leask and N. Pachler (Eds) Learning to Teach Using ICT in the Secondary School. London: Routledge.

2004 Understanding Reading Development. London: Sage, 230pp.

2004 Postmodern principles for responsive reading assessment, Journal of Research in Reading, 27(2), p163-173.

2004 Use of ICT and its relationship with performance in examinations: a comparison of the ImpaCT2 project’s research findings using pupil‐level, school‐level and multilevel modelling data. (with Lunzer, E. A., Tymms, P., Fitz‐Gibbon, C. T., & Restorick, J.) Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(5), 319-337.

2004 Different shoes, same footprints? A cross-disciplinary evaluation of students’ online learning experiences: preliminary findings from the SOLE project. (with Timmis, S., O’Leary, R., Weedon, E., & Martin, K.) Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2004(2).

2002 What does research tell us about how to develop comprehension?, In Raising Standards in Literacy. Eds G. Brooks, R. Fisher and M. Lewis. London: Routledge-Falmer, pp 9-22.

2002 The Boots Books for Babies project: Impact on library registrations and book loans. (with Bailey, M., & Brooks., G) Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 2(1), 45-63.

2002 Out of Lesson Time Learning in Derby: an independent evaluation (with Bailey, M., & Thompson, P.). Derby City Council Education Service.

2002 NGfL Pathfinders: Final Report on the roll-out of the NGfL Programme in ten Pathfinder LEAs. With Somekh, B.; Woodrow, D.; Barnes, S.; Triggs, P.; Sutherland, R.; Passey, D.; Holt, H.; Fisher, A.; Flett, A.; Joyes, G.; ICT in Schools Research and Evaluation Series. Number 9, London, DfES. pp44.

2002 Harrison, C.; Fisher, A.; Haw, K.; Lunzer, E.; Lewin, C.; Scrimshaw, P.; McFarlane, A.; Mavers, D.; Somekh, B.; ImpaCT2: The impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Pupil Learning and Attainment, ICT in Schools Research and Evaluation Series, Number 7. London, DfES. Pp48

2002 ImpaCT2: Pupils’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of ICT in the Home, School and Community (with Tony Fisher, Kaye Haw, Eric Lunzer, Cathy Lewin, Peter Scrimshaw, Angela McFarlane, Di Mavers and Bridget Somekh). ICT in Schools Research and Evaluation Series, Number 9. London: DfES.

2001 Reading development at secondary level: what are the issues?, In ‘Reading Matters: A Fresh Start’ Dublin: RAI. Eds Gerry Sheil and Ursula Ni Dhalaigh, p141-154.

2001 Roots and Research: A review of research underpinning the National Strategy for literacy. London: DfES. (39pp.)

2001 ImpaCT2: Emerging findings from the Evaluation of the Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on Pupil Attainment, NGfL Research and Evaluation Series. London: DfES. pp16.

2001 The Reading for Real Handbook. (Second Edition) C.Harrison and M.C.Coles (Eds) London: Routledge (228 pages).

2000 Reading Research in the UK: a review, in Kamil, M. L & Mosenthal, P. B., (eds.), The Handbook of Reading Research, Vol III, Longman, London, p17-28.

1999 When Scientists Don’t Agree: The Case for Balanced Phonics, Reading, Vol 33(2), p59.

1999 Improving literacy at Key Stage 3: policy, practice and evaluation. Reading, 33, 41-45.

1999 Directed Activities Related to Texts (DARTs). In Anne Allsop and Anna Bourke (Eds.) Nottingham City Key Stage 3 Literacy Manual. City of Nottingham Education, 81-88.

1999 High-stakes Assessments in Reading: Consequences, Concerns and Common Sense. In Shelby Barrentine (Ed.) Reading Assessment: Principles and Practices for Elementary Teachers. Newark, DE: International Reading Association (with J. Horrman, K. Au, S. Paris, P.D.Pearson, C.M.Santa, S.H.Silver and S.W.Valencia).

1998 Reading Assessment: Theory and Practice. C. Harrison and T. Salinger (Eds.) London: Routledge (230pp.)

1997 NCET Multimedia Portables for Teachers Evaluation Report (with Michael Youngman, Mary Bailey, Tony Fisher, and Richard Phillips). NCET. (76pp.)

1996 The Trust supports international work on reading assessment. Literacy Today, 5, p.20.

1996 The Teaching of Reading: What Teachers Need to Know. Widnes: UKRA (ISBN 1-897638-11-6) 64 pp.

1996 Take a leaf out of the Scots’ book. Times Educational Supplement, 17 May (1,200 words)

1996 Methods of Teaching Reading: Key Issues in Research and Implications for Practice. Interchange 39. Edinburgh: Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. 12 pp.

1996 Family literacy: evaluation, ownership and ambiguity. RSA Journal, 144(5474), 25-28.

1996 Balancing the priorities of the classroom teacher with the imperatives of high stakes assessment of reading: An English perspective. Interchange, 27(3-4), 349-360.

1996 Compellingness in reading research. Reading Research Quarterly, 31/3, pp. 334-341 (with Philip Gough).

1995 Youth and white paper: the politics of literacy assessment in the United Kingdom. English Journal. 84/2, (February), 115-119.

1995 Youth and white paper: the politics of literacy assessment in the United Kingdom. English Journal. (USA) 84/2, (February), 115-119.

1995 Review article on David Barton’s The Ecology of Literacy (Blackwell, 1994) Journal of Reading Behaviour, 27/1, 101-3.

1995 Guest editor (with Jeanne Peratore) of a special issue of the Journal of Reading (now the Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy) on family literacy, 38/7 (80pp).

1995 Family literacy: ownership, evaluation and accountability (with Anne Bentley and Margaret Cook). In Developing Language and Literacy in the English National Curriculum, edited by Bridie Raban, Greg Brooks and Sheila Wolfendale.Trentham Books, 179-188.

1995 Family literacy practices in the United Kingdom. In Lesley Morrow (Ed) Family Literacy: Multiple Perspectives to Enhance Literacy Development.Newark DE: International Reading Association.

1995 Exploring the world of computerized resources: using networked computers to access global information. Journal of Information Technology in Teacher Education, Volume 4. No.2, 237-251 (with Li Zhenzhong).

1994 The KAL-CAL project: an introduction. Education Today. 44/3, pp33-36 (with Val McCartney).

1994 The Effect of Changes in Examining GCSE English in 1994. Final Project Report. London: School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (with Chris Hall)(35pp).

1994 Measuring “success” in reading in Adult Basic Education: a UK perspective. In Marguerite C. Radenich (ed) Adult Literacy: A Compendium of Articles from the Journal of Reading. Newark DE: International Reading Association, pp61-69 (with Ann Finlay).

1994 Family literacy: perspectives and practices. Journal of the Iowa State Reading Association (with L.M.Morrow and J. Peratore).

1994 Entry on Readability, in R.E.Asher (ed) The Encyclopedeia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

1994 Electronic mail and UKRA. Language and Literacy News, 15, 7-9.

1994 Cross Key Stage Comparability Study in English Project Report (with Mick Youngman). London: SCAA (38pp).

1993 Electronic bulletin boards and educational research. Research Intelligence 48, 28-9.

1993 The EHE-EMSAT Project: the development of awareness of electronic mail among student teachers. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education 2/1, 89-103 (with Do Coyle).

1993 KAL-CAL computer programs for self-study of Knowledge About Language. University of Nottingham: Teaching and Learning Technology Project.

1993 Information skills. In Sue Brindley (Ed.) Teaching English. London: Routledge, pp105-115.

1993 Family literacy. The Reading Teacher 47, 3, 194-200 (with Lesley Morrow, Jeanne Peratore, Devron Gaber and Diane Tracey).

1993 Computer literacy skills among school students and employees in industry. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 8, 194-205 (with David Hay, Andy Pierson and John Burton).

1992 The Teaching of Reading: What Teachers Need to Know. Widnes: UKRA, 64pp.

1992 The Reading for Real Handbook. C.Harrison and M.C.Coles (Eds) London: Routledge (220 pages).

1992 Measuring “success” in reading in Adult Basic Education: a UK perspective. Journal of Reading 36/3, 164-173 (with Ann Finlay).

1992 Information skills: what are they and how can we teach them? In Freda Satow (Ed.) Literacy Without Frontiers. Ormskirk: United Kingdom Reading Association. (18pp)

1991 The real reading debate: how to raise standards. Language and Literacy News.

1991 The Hi-technique of manual skills. Education Guardian, 7.2.91 (with David Hay).

1991 SATs in action -A case study of ‘Greenhurst Comprehensive School’Polytechnic of East London: East London and Macmillan Assessment Group.

1991 Real books and imaginary problems. Times Educational Supplement, 15th March.

1991 Microcomputer adventure games and second language learning: a study of Hong Kong tertiary students. In Martha C.Pennington and Vance Stevens (Eds.) Computers in Applied Linguistics. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, pp155-178 (with Anthony C.M. Cheung).

1991 Celebrating Literacy: Defending Literacy. C. Harrison and E. Ashworth (Eds) Oxford: Basil Blackwell (188pp).

1991 Celebrating and defending literacy. In C. Harrison and E. Ashworth (Eds) Celebrating Literacy: Defending Literacy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1991 Action on reading. Special Children, 45/1991, 18-19.

1991 A note and glossary on the National Curriculum. In C. Harrison and E. Ashworth (Eds) Celebrating Literacy: Defending Literacy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1990 ‘Should English teachers teach grammar?’ in M Hunter-Carsch, S.Beverton and D.Dennis (Eds.) Primary English in the National Curriculum. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1988 Interactive Learning and the New Technologies (Editor) Strasbourg: E.E.C., 180pp.

1988 Research into the use of computers for language and reading development in the United Kingdom. In Colin Harrison (ed.) Interactive Learning and the New Technologies. Strasbourg: E.E.C. Chapter 1.3.

1988 Do young readers find direct speech difficult to read? Reading, 22, 1, 52-60 (with Kay Lewis).

1988 Books versus computer data sources: do they imply different types of reading activity? Bulletin d’Audiophonologie- Annales Scientifiques de l’Université de Franche-Comté, Vol.IV NS, 4-5, 555-571.

1987 What should language arts teachers teach about language? Virginia English Bulletin 37/1, 13-23.

1987 Submission to the Committee of Enquiry into the Teaching of English (The Kingman Committee). Ormskirk: United Kingdom Reading Association (with C.M. Hunter- Carsch, D.G. Brooks and L.J. Chapman), 18pp.

1987 Reading and the microcomputer: more questions than answers? In B. Smith (ed.) Microexplorations 3. Ormskirk: UKRA, 12pp.

1987 Problem solving: slow learners using ‘The Lost Frog’ microcomputer adventure game. In B.Smith (ed.) Microexplorations 3. Ormskirk: UKRA, 14pp. (with Sheila Goulding).1987 Ideas for teaching poetry. In C.M.Hunter-Carsch (ed.) Language and Literacy. Leicester University School of Education, 34-37.

1986 The information skills curriculum. In B.A.Gillham (ed.) The Language of School Subjects London: Heinemann Educational Books, 39-52.

1986 Readability in the UK: a review of current research and practice. Journal of Reading, 521-9.

1986 New directions in text research and readability. In A.Cashdan (ed.) Teaching Reading Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 61-81.

1986 Access to Policing – A Course for Applicants to the West Midlands Police Force. University of Nottingham School of Education (with C. Cooke, H.Tolley and K.C.Thomas). (265pp.)

1985 Arcade games in the English classroom: some surprising results. In D.Wray (ed.) Microexplorations (1) Ormskirk: UKRA, 41-55.

1984-94 Co-editor, Journal of Research in Reading, Volumes 7-19.

1984-8 Research Monographs Editor for the UKRA (published by Hodder and Stoughton).

1984 WILT (Educational computer program). Harlow: Longman (with Andrew Pierson).

1984 The readability of health care literature. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 26, 588-595 (with A.Nicoll).

1984 Study Sixteen Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd (with Colin Swatridge), 160pp.

1984 Criteria for evaluating microcomputer software for reading development: observations based on three British case studies. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 1, 2, 227-240.

1984 Cloze procedure as a measure of reading comprehension: the effects of variations in subject matter on textual redundancy. Human Learning, 3, 3, 185-201 (with Mary Bailey).

1984 Assessing readability in languages other than English. In H.Martin and A.K.Pugh (eds.) Reading in a Foreign Language: Theoretical and practical considerations for course design. York: Goethe Institut, 5-17.

1983 Readability and learning from textbooks: the implications of current research. Nigerian Educational Forum, 6, 1, 17-27.

1982 Developing reading through television. In A.Hendry (ed.) Teaching Reading: the Key Issues London: Heinemann, 107-115.

1981-84 Editor-in-chief, Journal of Research in Reading

1981 The textbook as an endangered species: the implications of economic decline and technological advance on the place of reading in learning. Oxford Review of Education 7, 3, 231-240.

1981 Developing reading. In M. Marland (ed.) Departmental Management. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 130-142.

1980 The readability of road safety publications Technical Report 944. Crowthorne, Berks: Transport and Road Research Laboratory (with D.Sheppard).

1980 Readability in the Classroom. Cambridge: The University Press, 198pp.

1980 Readability and comprehension tests on an official booklet for learner drivers. Crowthorne, Berks: Transport and Road Research Laboratory (with D.Sheppard).

1979 The incidence and context of reading in the classroom. In E.A.Lunzer and Keith Gardner (eds.) The Effective Use of Reading. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 108-138.

1979 Reading comprehension: a psychological viewpoint. In Mackay, Barkman and Jordan (eds.) Reading in a Second Language Massachusetts: Newbury House (with Terry Dolan), 13-23.

1979 Improving reading through group discussion activities. In E.A.Lunzer and Keith Gardner (eds.) The Effective Use of Reading. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 228-266.

1979 Assessing the readability of school texts. In E.A.Lunzer and Keith Gardner (eds.) The Effective Use of Reading. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 72-107.

1978 The reading process and learning to read. In G.Steiner (ed.) Psychology of the Twentieth Century Geneva: Kinder Verlag pp. 1092-1129 (with E.A.Lunzer).

1978 Founding co-editor, Journal of Research in Reading, Volumes 1-3 (160pp each volume).

1977 The place of reading. In (Marland, M., ed.) Language Across the Curriculum. Heinemann, 80-103.

1977 Reading After Ten: Introduction. In C.Longley (ed.) Reading After TenLondon: BBC, 7-26.

1977 Is there a devil in the Smog?- ways and means of assessing readability. Junior Education, May 1977, 32-4.

1977 Investigating the readability of texts. Research Intelligence, 3, 1, 44-47.

1977 Assessing the readability of school texts. In J.Gilliland (ed.) Reading: Improving Classroom Practice and Research London: Ward Lock, 65-80.

1975 Encouraging effective reading. In Teaching English, Vol.10, 1, 19-24.

1974 Readability and School. Schools Council Project Discussion Document. University of Nottingham School of Education (36pp).

1972 The four card problem and the generality of formal reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24, 3, 326-339 (with E.A. Lunzer and S.M. Davey).



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